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The NLP Cypher | 03.14.21
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The NLP Cypher | 03.14.21

Last Updated on July 24, 2023 by Editorial Team

Author(s): Ricky Costa

Originally published on Towards AI.

St. Jerome in his Study U+007C Durer

NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING (NLP) WEEKLY NEWSLETTER

The NLP Cypher U+007C 03.14.21

Set the Controls for the U+2665 of the Sun

NERD OVERLOAD

Happy Pi Day!

Let’s talk about “Cryptonite: How I Stopped Worrying and Learned(?) to Love Ambiguity”

Cryptonite is a cryptic clue, a short phrase or sentence with a misleading surface reading, whose solving requires disambiguating semantic, syntactic, and phonetic wordplays, as well as world knowledge.

example:

And luckily, It’s also a dataset

And it’s an important dataset to consider the ambiguity of language. Solving the ambiguity problem, whether its derived strictly from NLP only or from a combination of multi-modal models, or from graphs, will be key in order for models to achieve what Thomas Paine called “Common Sense”. Why? Because it requires models to have n-order logic. You can think of n-order logic as the Russian doll of logic, which is, logic nested within logic. And it’s what we use when we do battle with a New York Times crossword puzzle, which requires different uses of word play, world knowledge and other linguistic artifacts.

This is a very tough problem for current transformers to solve for. In fact, the authors of the paper said that a T5-Large trained on the Cryptonite dataset achieved only 7.6% accuracy U+1F440, which is on par with rule-based accuracy U+1F648 .

Translation: Transformers suck at this task.

This type of ‘reasoning’ is what lies at the highest level of abstraction of the human brain. Intuition tells me that n-order-logic will require hypergraphs, but the future is unwritten…

Paper

aviaefrat/cryptonite

Current NLP datasets targeting ambiguity can be solved by a native speaker with relative ease. We present Cryptonite, a…

github.com

Hub Datasets

Hub, the data storage application from Activeloop.AI is riding the dataset gravy train. Their framework stores datasets in the cloud as numpy arrays so you can access it seamlessly across several frameworks. Here are the features:

  • Store and retrieve large datasets with version-control
  • Collaborate as in Google Docs: Multiple data scientists working on the same data in sync with no interruptions
  • Access from multiple machines simultaneously
  • Deploy anywhere — locally, on Google Cloud, S3, Azure as well as Activeloop
  • Integrate with your ML tools like Numpy, Dask, Ray, PyTorch, or TensorFlow
  • Create arrays as big as you want. You can store images as big as 100k by 100k!
  • Keep shape of each sample dynamic. This way you can store small and big arrays as 1 array.
  • Visualize any slice of the data in a matter of seconds without redundant manipulations

activeloopai/Hub

Note: the translations of this document may not be up-to-date. For the latest version, please check the README in…

github.com

PyTorch Lightning Update U+1F525

A new update is out!

PyTorch is going in heavy on multiple methods for distributed training and model compression, here are some the features in BETA:

DeepSpeed

Pruning

Quantization

They are also integrating PyTorch Geometric! GNNs!!! (hype)

PyTorch Lightning V1.2.0- DeepSpeed, Pruning, Quantization, SWA

Including new integrations with DeepSpeed, PyTorch profiler, Pruning, Quantization, SWA, PyTorch Geometric and more.

medium.com

Talking about PyTorch… Basic Tutorials

An awesome introduction to PyTorch showing an end-to-end ML pipeline from loading your data all the way to saving a trained model, includes a Colab notebook:

Learn the Basics – PyTorch Tutorials 1.8.0 documentation

Learn the Basics U+007CU+007C Quickstart U+007CU+007C Tensors U+007CU+007C Datasets & DataLoaders U+007CU+007C Transforms U+007CU+007C Build Model U+007CU+007C Autograd U+007CU+007C…

pytorch.org

Ok Ok, Last Mention of PyTorch… Promise

Here’s a handy deep learning project template using PyTorch Lightning, Hydra, and Tensorboard. Ok I’m done. U+1F60E

lkhphuc/lightning-hydra-template

Use this template to rapidly bootstrap a DL project: Write code in Pytorch Lightning's LightningModule and…

github.com

Transformers as Universal Computation Engines

Important paper to read if you are interested on how pretrained language models can be used to transfer its knowledge to other domains outside of NLP (i.e. vision, computing numbers etc.). Authors suggest that these models, that have kept their self-attention/feed forward layers frozen (without fine-tuning) can actually match the performance of a fully trained model trained on the downstream task.

Code:

kzl/universal-computation

Official codebase for Pretrained Transformers as Universal Computation Engines. Contains demo notebook and scripts to…

github.com

Paper:

Pretrained Transformers as Universal Computation Engines

We investigate the capability of a transformer pretrained on natural language to generalize to other modalities with…

arxiv.org

LineFlow: Dataset Loader

LineFlow is a framework agnostic dataset loader for NLP.

Tasks it supports:

tofunlp/lineflow

LineFlow is a simple text dataset loader for NLP deep learning tasks. LineFlow was designed to use in all deep learning…

github.com

Repo Cypher U+1F468‍U+1F4BB

A collection of recently released repos that caught our U+1F441

Information Extraction (in Julia)

Combining deep learning and context free grammars for information extraction

deepcpcfg/datasets

This repository contains supplementary materials for DeepCPCFG: Deep Learning and Context Free Grammars for End-to-End…

github.com

Connected Papers U+1F4C8

TypeShift (in R)

A UI that helps visualize how peeps type language on a keyboard. For example, was it fast or slow, differences across languages etc.

angoodkind/TypeShift

The task of "visualizing language production" is both broad and difficult to execute conclusively. Common…

github.com

Connected Papers U+1F4C8

MATH Dataset

A new dataset of 12,500 challenging competition math word problems. FYI, not the same as DeepMind’s Math dataset.

hendrycks/math

This is the repository for Measuring Mathematical Problem Solving With the MATH Dataset by Dan Hendrycks, Collin Burns…

github.com

Connected Papers U+1F4C8

Byte2Speech

Framework adopts the multi-lingual and multi-speaker transformer TTS framework in Yang & He (2020), and extends it to byte inputs.

mutiann/byte2speech

This is an implementation of the paper, based on the open-source Transformer-TTS. Audio samples of the paper is…

github.com

Connected Papers U+1F4C8

Rissanen Data Analysis

Rissanen Data Analysis (RDA) is a method to determine what capabilities are helpful to solve a dataset.

ethanjperez/rda

Rissanen Data Analysis (RDA) is a method to determine what capabilities are helpful to solve a dataset, as described…

github.com

Colab

Connected Papers U+1F4C8

MediaSum Dataset

Interview transcript dataset with abstractive summaries

zcgzcgzcg1/MediaSum

This large-scale media interview dataset contains 463.6K transcripts with abstractive summaries, collected from…

github.com

Connected Papers U+1F4C8

Dataset of the Week: Contract Understanding Atticus Dataset (CUAD)

What is it?

A corpus of 13,000+ labels in 510 commercial legal contracts that have been manually labeled under the supervision of experienced lawyers to identify 41 types of legal clauses that are considered important in contact review in connection with a corporate transaction, including mergers & acquisitions.

Sample

Where is it?

TheAtticusProject/cuad

This repository contains code for the Contract Understanding Atticus Dataset (CUAD), a dataset for legal contract…

github.com

Every Sunday we do a weekly round-up of NLP news and code drops from researchers around the world.

For complete coverage, follow our Twitter: @Quantum_Stat

Quantum Stat

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