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Multi-resolution Image Processing and Compression
Latest   Machine Learning

Multi-resolution Image Processing and Compression

Last Updated on July 20, 2023 by Editorial Team

Author(s): Akula Hemanth Kumar

Originally published on Towards AI.

Making computer vision easy with Monk, low code Deep Learning tool and a unified wrapper for Computer Vision.

Reference: Google Image

Table of contents

  1. Multi-scale Image processing
  2. Image pyramids
  3. Image pyramids using OpenCV
  4. Image blending using Pyramids
  5. Image compression

Multi-scale Image processing

Advantages

  • Scaling down for fewer storage requirements.
  • Scaling image up for zooming operation.
  • Scaling images and combining them is used for increasing image sharpness.

Image pyramids

  • This scaling up and down can be visualized as pyramids. Thus the name pyramidal image processing.

Image pyramids using OpenCV

Lower pyramids using OpenCV

%matplotlib inline
import numpy as np
import cv2
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
img = cv2.imread("imgs/chapter8/indoor.jpg", 0)
print("Original Image shape - {}".format(img.shape))lower_reso1 = cv2.pyrDown(img)print("First Lower Pyramid Image shape - {}".format(lower_reso1.shape))f = plt.figure(figsize=(15,15))
f.add_subplot(2, 1, 1).set_title('Original Image')
plt.imshow(img, cmap="gray")
f.add_subplot(2, 1, 2).set_title('Lower level 1 Image')
plt.imshow(lower_reso1, cmap="gray")
plt.show()

Output

Original Image shape - (423, 640)
First Lower Pyramid Image shape - (212, 320)

Note: Look at the scale next to the image, not the visible shape

Higher pyramids using OpenCV

%matplotlib inline
import numpy as np
import cv2
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
img = cv2.imread("imgs/chapter8/indoor.jpg", 0)
print("Original Image shape - {}".format(img.shape))
lower_reso1 = cv2.pyrDown(img)
print("First Lower Pyramid Image shape - {}".format(lower_reso1.shape))
restored_reso = cv2.pyrUp(lower_reso1)
print(" Restored Image shape -{}".format(restored_reso.shape))
f = plt.figure(figsize=(15,15))
f.add_subplot(2, 1, 1).set_title('Original Image')
plt.imshow(img, cmap="gray")
f.add_subplot(2, 1, 2).set_title('Restored Image')
plt.imshow(restored_reso, cmap="gray")
plt.show()

Output

Original Image shape - (423, 640) 
First Lower Pyramid Image shape - (212, 320)
Restored Image shape - (424, 640)

Gaussian Pyramid downscaling

%matplotlib inline
import numpy as np
import cv2
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
A = cv2.imread("imgs/chapter8/sea.jpg", 1);
height, width, channel = A.shape;

gaussian_pyramid = [];

# First image in pyramid is the orginal one
gaussian_pyramid.append(A);


# Then for six times we apply pyramid down functions
for i in range(5):
A = cv2.pyrDown(A)
B = np.zeros((height, width, 3), dtype=np.uint8)
B[:A.shape[0], :A.shape[1], :] = A[:, :, :]
gaussian_pyramid.append(B)
img1 = np.hstack((gaussian_pyramid[0], gaussian_pyramid[1]))
img2 = np.hstack((gaussian_pyramid[2], gaussian_pyramid[3]))
img3 = np.hstack((gaussian_pyramid[4], gaussian_pyramid[5]))

out = np.vstack((img1, img2, img3))

plt.figure(figsize=(15, 15))
plt.imshow(out[:,:,::-1])
plt.show()

Laplacian Pyramid upscaling

%matplotlib inline
import numpy as np
import cv2
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
A = cv2.imread("imgs/chapter8/outdoor.jpg", 1)

down = cv2.pyrDown(A)
up = cv2.pyrUp(down)

print(A.shape, up.shape)
laplacian_up = cv2.subtract(A, up)

plt.figure(figsize=(15, 15))
plt.imshow(laplacian_up[:,:,::-1])
plt.show()

Output

(360, 640, 3) (360, 640, 3)

Image blending using Pyramids

Continuous Integration of images

'''
Image credits: https://github.com/opencv/opencv/tree/master/samples/data

'''
%matplotlib inline
import numpy as np
import cv2
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
A = cv2.imread("imgs/chapter8/orange.jpg", 1);
B = cv2.imread("imgs/chapter8/apple.jpg", 1);


# generate Gaussian pyramid for A
G = A.copy()
gpA = [G]
for i in range(6):
G = cv2.pyrDown(G)
gpA.append(G)


# generate Gaussian pyramid for B
G = B.copy()
gpB = [G]
for i in range(6):
G = cv2.pyrDown(G)
gpB.append(G)


# generate Laplacian Pyramid for A
lpA = [gpA[5]]
for i in range(5,0,-1):
GE = cv2.pyrUp(gpA[i])
L = cv2.subtract(gpA[i-1],GE)
lpA.append(L)

# generate Laplacian Pyramid for B
lpB = [gpB[5]]
for i in range(5,0,-1):
GE = cv2.pyrUp(gpB[i])
L = cv2.subtract(gpB[i-1],GE)
lpB.append(L)


#Now add left and right halves of images in each level
LS = []
for la,lb in list(zip(lpA,lpB)):
rows,cols,dpt = la.shape
ls = np.hstack((la[:,0:cols//2], lb[:,cols//2:]))
LS.append(ls)

# now reconstruct
ls_ = LS[0]
for i in range(1,6):
ls_ = cv2.pyrUp(ls_)
ls_ = cv2.add(ls_, LS[i])

# image with direct connecting each half
real = np.hstack((A[:,:cols//2],B[:,cols//2:]))
#cv2.imwrite('Pyramid_blending2.jpg',ls_)
#cv2.imwrite('Direct_blending.jpg',real)

f = plt.figure(figsize=(15,15))
f.add_subplot(2, 1, 1).set_title('Pyramidal Blending');
plt.imshow(ls_[:, :,::-1])
f.add_subplot(2, 1, 2).set_title('Direct Blending');
plt.imshow(real[:, :,::-1]);
plt.show()

Image and Video Compression

  • By the end of 2020, the digital world is expected to have generated 45 Zettabytes of data. Most of which are images and videos. On average 80 % of daily internet data usage of individual results out of videos and images.

Urgent need for lossless data compression techniques

  • Less data transfer
  • Less data Storage

Popular image compression techniques

Lossless compression

  • Run-length encoding used for BMP files.
  • DEFLATE data compression used for PNG files.
  • LZW compression used for GIFs

Lossy compression

  • JPEG

You can find the complete jupyter notebook on Github.

If you have any questions, you can reach Abhishek and Akash. Feel free to reach out to them.

I am extremely passionate about computer vision and deep learning in general. I am an open-source contributor to Monk Libraries.

You can also see my other writings at:

Akula Hemanth Kumar – Medium

Read writing from Akula Hemanth Kumar on Medium. Computer vision enthusiast. Every day, Akula Hemanth Kumar and…

medium.com

Photo by Srilekha

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